READ AND WATCH

INTERESTING ARTICLES AND VIDEOS:

Wärtsilä issues White Paper: Shipping in the 2020 Era - February 1, 2018
(Click to download:)
ABS Surveyor 2019 Volume 3
ABS Surveyor 2019 Volume 3
Please read the article on ABS' special 'Gastech' edition of its 'SURVEYOR' magazine,
pages 17-21 (click to open:)
Health risks of shipping pollution have been 'underestimated.'
 
One giant container ship can emit almost the same amount of cancer and asthma-causing chemicals as 50 million cars, study finds. 

The setting up of a low emission shipping zone follows US academic research which showed that pollution from the world's 90,000 cargo ships leads to 60,000 deaths a year and costs up to $330bn per year in health costs from lung and heart diseases. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates the buffer zone, which could be in place by next year, will save more than 8,000 lives a year with new air quality standards cutting sulphur in fuel by 98%, particulate matter by 85% and nitrogen oxide emissions by 80%.

The new study by the Danish government's environmental agency adds to this picture. It suggests that shipping emissions cost the Danish health service almost £5bn a year, mainly treating cancers and heart problems. A previous study estimated that 1,000 Danish people die prematurely each year because of shipping pollution. No comprehensive research has been carried out on the effects on UK coastal communities, but the number of deaths is expected to be much higher.

 

Cars driving 15,000km a year emit approximately 101 grammes of sulphur oxide gases (or SOx) in that time. The world's largest ships' diesel engines which typically operate for about 280 days a year generate roughly 5,200 tonnes of SOx.

"Ship pollution affects the health of communities in coastal and inland regions around the world, yet pollution from ships remains one of the least regulated parts of our global transportation system," said James Corbett, professor of marine policy at the University of Delaware, one of the authors of the report which helped persuade the US government to act.

Shipping by numbers:

  • The world's biggest container ships have 109,000 horsepower engines which weigh 2,300 tons.

  • Each ship expects to operate 24hrs a day for about 280 days a year

  • There are 90,000 ocean-going cargo ships

  • Shipping is responsible for 18-30% of all the world's nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution and 9% of the global sulphur oxide (SOx) pollution.

  • One large ship can generate about 5,000 tonnes of sulphur oxide (SOx) pollution in a year

  • 70% of all ship emissions are within 400km of land.

  • 85% of all ship pollution is in the northern hemisphere.

  • Shipping is responsible for 3.5% to 4% of all climate change emissions

 

(This article was amended on 25 August 2015 to correct the number of deaths per year attributed to pollution from the world's 90,000 cargo ships.)

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/apr/09/shipping-pollution

"Ocean going vessels emit significant pollution that not only effect populations living near ports and coastlines, but also those living hundreds of miles inland." 
US EPA

Ocean going vessels emit significant pollution that not only effect populations living near ports and coastlines, but also those living hundreds of miles inland. Marine diesel engines generate significant emissions of NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and sulfur oxides (SOx) that contribute to nonattainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 and ozone.

These engines also emit hydrocarbons (HC) , carbon monoxide (CO), and hazardous air pollutants or air toxics that are associated with adverse health effects. Emissions from these engines also cause harm to public welfare, and contribute to visibility impairment and other detrimental environmental impacts across the United States.

 

Large marine diesel engines are significant contributors to our national mobile source emission inventory and their contribution is expected to grow in the future. At the current rate, NOx emissions from ships are projected to more than double to 2.1 million tons a year while annual PM2.5 emissions are expected to almost triple to 170,000 tons a year by 2030.

https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/marpol-annex-vi

 
Air pollution from international shipping accounts approximately for 50,000 premature deaths per year in Europe, at an annual cost to society of more than €58 billion.
Maritime shipping accounts for 8% of global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), making the industry an important source for acid rain as well as respiratory diseases.

Air pollution from ships continues to increase as the sector grows. Land-based emissions – SOx and NOx – on the other hand, particularly from fixed installations, have been reduced dramatically at great cost. NOx from shipping is set to exceed NOx from all EU land-based sources in the coming decade.

Air pollution from international shipping accounts approximately for 50,000 premature deaths per year in Europe, at an annual cost to society of more than €58 billion according to recent scientific studies. Through chemical reactions in the air, SO2 and NOx is converted into fine particles, sulphate and nitrate aerosols. In addition to the particles directly emitted by ships such as black carbon, these secondary particles increase the health impacts of shipping pollution. Tiny airborne particles are linked to premature deaths. The particles get into the lungs and are small enough to pass through tissues and enter the blood. They can then trigger inflammations which eventually cause heart and lung failures. Ship emissions may also contain carcinogenic particles.

https://www.transportenvironment.org/what-we-do/shipping/air-pollution-ships

HFO’s low price does not reflect its impacts on the environment and human health. The sulfur content of HFO can be up to 35,000 parts per million. It is the reason that maritime shipping accounts for 8% of global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), making the industry an important source for acid rain as well as respiratory diseases.

The shift to cleaner but pricier low-sulfur fuels is likely to heighten interest in the “fifth fuel”: energy efficiency

https://www.theicct.org/blogs/staff/end-era-heavy-fuel-oil-maritime-shipping

The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set national air quality standards for particulate matter and five other pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment (the other pollutants are ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and lead). The law also requires EPA to periodically review the standards to ensure that they provide adequate health and environmental protection, and to update those standards as necessary:  

https://www.epa.gov/naaqs/particulate-matter-pm-air-quality-standards

 

According to the World Health Organization, more than 200,000 deaths in Europe every year can be attributed to particulate matter alone.
 

According to the World Health Organization, more than 200,000 deaths in Europe every year can be attributed to particulate matter alone.


Nitrogen dioxide was responsible for around 78,000 deaths in Europe in 2014, according to the European Environment Agency. 

Nitrogen oxides including NO2 "cause inflammation on the bronchial mucous membrane," explains Andreas Hellmann, a respiratory specialist in Berlin. "Then we see inflammatory reactions from bronchitis to asthma and the development of lung tumors in some cases."


According to Hellmann, children living close to main roads can be particularly badly affected and face an increased risk of developing asthma, which in turn makes them even more vulnerable to the effects of nitrogen oxides.

 

INTERESTING

VIDEOS:

Watch our presentation on PROJECT FORWARD´s 
background from our world-class project partners and learn more about FORWARD SHIPS 
NASA Reveals ships´ pollution effects on clouds
NASA Goddard /
MODIS Satellite
S&P Global Platts
How will the IMO's 2020 global sulfur cap reshape the oil industry?
S&P Global Platts
The bunker market beyond 2020
See for yourself how big Forward Ships' impact is:
ExxonMobil Marine
Advice on changing between high and low sulphur fuels as vessels move in and out of Emission Control Areas
 
TRT World Insight:
Ship Pollution
Governor Corzine joins EPA Administrator, Lisa Jackson to announce a new emissions standards proposal for ocean-going ships within a 200-mile buffer zone around the United States.
Views from SEA\LNG's members:
Why do you believe in LNG as a marine fuel?
Shipowners, suppliers, and ports answer:
HOW SAFE LNG IS
Shell Natural Gas
What is LNG?
Turning natural gas into liquid
Why Natural Gas Could Be the Fuel That Changes the World
Our answer on hydrogen: 
We agree with Elon Musk:
 

PRESS COVERAGE

Press Release - October 18, 2018
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PRESS RELEASE IMO 2050.jpg
Press Release - June 20, 2018
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Press Release - May 18, 2018
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Press Release - April 10, 2018
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Tradewinds, June 1, 2018: 
- “Perhaps the most advanced plan to catapult shipping into the age of low carbon
emissions has Greek masterminds"; 
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TRADEWINDS ARTICLE JUNE 1 2018.jpg
Lloyd's List Interview - April 19, 2018
(click to view)
2019-04-14_185056.jpg
 

Forward Ships is a Member of

The Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel (SGMF) is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) established to promote safety and industry best practice in the use of gas as a marine fuel. Governed by a representative Board and driven by two principal Committees, SGMF has several working groups at any one time solving issues and producing outputs such as Guidelines and checklists for the industry. The Society has produced four ISBN publications in the past two years and has over 120 international members ranging from oil majors, port authorities, fuel suppliers through to equipment manufacturers and classification societies.

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